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  • Monoclonal Antibody/Hybridoma Custom Service
    Monoclonal Antibody/Hybridoma Custom Service What Is Monoclonal Antibody/Hybridoma? Antibodies produced by the clones of one B-cell are called monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb). Monoclonal antibodies are highly specific immunoglobulin designed to target antigens. Therefore, they have been widely used in the diagnosis of disease, whether in the diagnostic laboratories, in the doctor's rooms or in the field. In addition, they are useful in designing vaccines or carrying toxins to a target cell without affecting adjacent cells. The antibodies produced by hybridoma are all of a single specificity and therefore are monoclonal antibodies. The mentioned hybridoma technology is the one forms hybrid cell lines (hybridomas) by fusing a specific antibody-producing B cell with myeloma tumor cells (B-cell cancer), which is selected for its ability to grow in tissue culture and for an absence of antibody chain synthesis. How to Make mAb?   Related Services Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Service ...
  • Polyclonal Antibody Serum Preparation
    Polyclonal Antibody Serum Preparation Introduction Leading Biology provides fully customizable services for polyclonal antibody production ranging from peptide design and synthesis to antibody purification and detection. A variety of different hosts to produce polyclonal antibodies are used, including rabbit, rat, mouse, goat, guinea pig, chicken, sheep, monkey, etc. Each project will be discussed thoroughly before starting the protocol so as to sure that your demands will be fulfilled.  Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are a group of antibodies that could bind to different epitopes of the same antigen. Even if a virus or bacteria changes its structure just a little bit, the antibodies will still be able to find and attach to it, which is different from the single combination of monoclonal antibodies. That is why researchers often use polyclonal antibodies to identify parts of unknown molecules. Apart from that, the polyclonal antibody preparation is cheaper, quicker and easier in comparison to monoclonal antibody preparation. Related Services Rabb...
  • Phage Display & Antibody Library Services
    Phage Display & Antibody Library Services   M13 single strand filamentous phage display system is the most widely used library display system. The phage display library is formed by fusing the protein, antibody or polypeptide with phage pIII protein to participate in phage package and display on the phage surface. Using phage display library to make 3-5 rounds of affinity screening for specific target molecules, phage that specifically binds to the target molecule could be enriched to obtain corresponding DNA sequence information. Our current phage display technology service platform covers frequently-used library types such as immune antibody library and natural antibody library. We strive for fulfilling individual customer's needs by customizing a variety of library and screening services to fit the individual preference with flexibility and efficience. Phage Display Service Profile M13 single strand filamentous phage display system is the most widely used library display system. The phage display library is formed by fusing the protein, antibody or polypeptide with phage pIII protein to participate in...
  •  Anti-Ion Channel Antibody Production Service
    Ion channels are also a class of important membrane proteins. The normal physiological activities of some cells and the pathological processes of some diseases are achieved through the conformation of modified membrane channels, so ion channel proteins also an important targets for some drugs. At present, based on the small molecule through membrane channel, people have developed several drugs that act on specific cell ion channels, such as Aspirin, a drug which we all know, is a commonly used proton pump inhibitor. Although based on the specificity and efficiency of antibody binding, people have developed some antibody drugs targeted on ion channel proteins, but the development of the antibody drug is not easy. A main reason is that the expression and purification of ion channel protein which used as an immunogen still facing many problems, it is hard to prepare enough amount of proteins to activate the immune response, in addition to immunization, the screening also needs a large number of target antigens, this brought enormous pressure on the preparation of antigens. In order to solve the problems above, Leading Biology has established three dif...
  • Anti-GPCR Antibody Production
    G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) family is a class of 7 transmembrane proteins, it is a target for many diseases. For some drugs which can not target the GPCR have been proved to have pharmacological activity under the guidance of some GPCR target molecules. With the development of immune technology, especially the improvement of the preparation and purification of GPCR protein, more and more drugs are considering using antibodies to target GPCR. The most notable one among these antibodies is the heavy chain antibody (hcAbs) which from camel (Dromedary), alpaca and other camelidae animals. The antibody which target the binding domain of hcAb antigen (also known as single domain antibody), at the same time has low molecular weight (low steric blockade and low expression cost) and monoclonal characteristics (high affinity and specificity), is the ideal guidance molecule for GPCR coupling drugs. Fig.1 The size of different types of antibody fragments and their common hosts With the breakthroughs in structural biology and biochemistry technology, more and more GPCR can be synthesized in vitro, and their structure analysis are more...
  • Hybridoma Preparation and Anti-membrane Protein mAbs Product
    Although using traditional antibody preparation method to prepare antibodies against membrane protein facing lots of difficulties, but considering the overall time and technical difficulty, monoclonal antibody preparation for some simple structure membrane proteins is still an economical and effective way. Service Package Service Items Time(weeks) Peptide Immunization Recombination Protein Immunization Peptide design & synthesis Peptide design -2 Free, Optional     Peptide synthesis √ √     Conjugation √ √ ...
  • Membrane Protein Antibody Production by Whole Cell Antigen P
    At the initial of mammalian immune process, antigens are not directly processed by Th cells, but processed and presented by the antigen presenting cells (APC). If we can produce cells which express target antigens, these antigens will be expressed on the cell surface, this kind of cells can be used to immunize animals as antigens. The advantages of this method are: in situ expression of transmembrane protein in eukaryotic system ensures its complete post-translational modification process, meanwhile, the natural structural characteristics are well preserved by using the cell membrane as the assemble and display surface. However, it also have many disadvantages: since the cell is too large compare to the target antigen, and the surface also contains some modificated non-target antigens, so as an antigen, although the immunogenicity can be guaranteed, the validity and specificity are not. The solution of this problem including high expression of target antigen and large number of screening to identify and exclude antibodies which recognize invalid antigens. Service Package Service Items ...
  • Membrane Protein Antibodies Service
    Among the numerous genes in the genome, there are 20%-30% gene encodes the membrane protein. These membrane proteins are involved in almost every intracellular activities in life, including ligand-receptor binding, signal transduction, molecular transport, intercellular recognition and enzyme catalysis. Since the membrane proteins participate in such a large number of physiological activities, it's an important target for drug development and clinical research. As an important reagent in experimental research, the antibodies which against these membrane proteins are essential, however, there are many problems by using traditional methods to prepare these antibodies, including the low expression rate, hard extraction and purification, heterologous gene encoding, mis-folding, incomplete post-translational processing and conformational differences etc. Leading Biology integrated many experimental platforms, including cell, molecule and industrial productions, consider each project separately. In principle, we use cell membrane, phospholipid membrane and liposome membrane to express the natural conformation of membrane protein in situ, this made the an...
  • Anti-autologous Antigen Antibody Production Service
    The preparation of anti-autologous antigen antibody refers to the use of normal proteins and small molecules which exists in the normal immune animals, or proteins and small molecules from other species which have high sequence conservation or structural consistency with natural immune animals as an antigen or hapten to immune these animals themselves to prepare the corresponding antibodies. Since the immunogens are exist in natural immune animals, the animal immune system is hard to start the cleaning reaction (immune reaction) as reaction to exogenous substances, this reaction is regulated by the self protective mechanism, because once these foreign antigens were considered as immunogen, it will cause the immune system to attack the normal proteins which having similar structures, induce autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the immunogenicity of these self-antigens are often very low, if not consider replacing the host species, it is difficult to prepare, but sometimes, due to the limitation of experimental conditions, we cannot make this choice, so the preparation of anti-autologous antigen antibody is very difficult. Rely on the experience of the animal model technolog...
  • Antibody Production by Liposome Immunization
    For some weak immunogenicity molecules, such as lipids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and DNA etc., even using the carrier coupling methods to increase its immunogenicity, it is still difficult to harvest high specificity antibodies for the target antigen due to its nature. Therefore, the preparation of antibodies for these antigens must find an antigen transport way which can fully adapt to the characteristics of antigens and transmit them to APC cells more efficiently. The liposome carrier was considered as a new adjuvant and vaccine delivery vector due to its excellent antigen stimulating activity. Because the size, membrane potential and membrane components of liposome can be freely adjusted, the liposome vectors have advantages which traditional carrier proteins do not have, they can transform some low immunogenicity even non immunogenic antigens into Immunogens, increase their opportunities to contact with the antigen presenting cell (APC) and processing to effective antigens, and most importantly, the liposomes are very helpful for the research and development of some vaccines since the carrier itself do not have side effect. ...
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